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Bioenergy technology roadmap for Colombia

Gonzalez-Salazar, Miguel Angel and Venturini, Mauro and Poganietz, Witold-Roger and Finkenrath, Matthias and Kirsten, Trevor and Acevedo, Helmer (2014) Bioenergy technology roadmap for Colombia. (Unpublished)

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    The importance of using bioenergy for reducing oil dependence and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, diversifying the energy portfolio and supporting rural development is been increasingly recognized in Colombia. Against this background, this roadmap provides a long-term vision and goals to sustainably deploy biofuel and biomass technologies in Colombia until 2030. The roadmap identifies barriers to bioenergy deployment and suggests specific actions that should be taken by stakeholders to accomplish the proposed goals. It adopts a methodology from the International Energy Agency for developing technology roadmaps and combines detailed energy modeling with experienced advice from over 30 bioenergy experts from the government, academia, industry and non-governmental organizations.
    Based on expert feedback, the roadmap defines two visions, which are translated into two scenarios for detailed evaluation:

    • The first vision, which is analyzed in Scenario I, focuses on new technologies and targets their deployment for the production of biomethane, biomass-based power generation and combined-heat-and-power (CHP). It fixes the current mandate for blending first generation liquid biofuels.
    • The second vision, which is analyzed in Scenario II, combines new and traditional technologies and targets a combination of new technologies for the production of biomethane, electricity and CHP with further growth of first generation biofuels.

    A detailed set of goals, milestones, technologies, policies and barriers are defined for each of the two visions. Long-term goals in the bioenergy area include:

    • Biodiesel: increase the quota mandate to B20 in 2020 and B30 in 2030.
    • Bioethanol: a) increase the quota mandate to E20 in 2025 and b) implement an E85 fuel program in 2030.
    • Renewable diesel: achieve a 10% contribution (on an energy basis) of renewable diesel to the total diesel fuel production in 2030.
    • Biomethane: use 5% of biomass residues and animal waste resources nationwide to produce biomethane to be injected into the natural gas network by 2030.
    • Power generation and CHP: a) achieve a renewable power target of 10% by 2025, b) use 5% of the biogas from animal waste and municipal water treatment plants nationwide by 2030, c) use 100% of the biogas produced in the water treatment process of biodiesel production plants by 2030, d) use 10% of the municipal landfill gas produced nationwide by 2030.

    A detailed energy system model for Colombia is set up and used to evaluate impacts on energy demand, supply, infrastructure and GHG emissions for Scenarios I and II and a baseline scenario that assumes no change in policies or deployment of new technologies. A land use and trade model that is linked to the energy system model is used to estimate land requirements for accomplishing the roadmap targets. A subset of Scenario II (Scenario II with expansion) considers a significant expansion in the cultivation of land beyond the Valley of the Cauca River.
    Results for the baseline show significant reductions in the share of bioenergy in the primary energy demand and various sectors. In contrast, Scenarios I and II are characterized by an increased share of bioenergy. In both scenarios, the bioenergy share for power generation and natural gas supply grows to about 6% in 2030. However, the share of bioenergy in the primary energy demand still declines to about 10% in 2030.
    Relative to the baseline, in Scenario I, bioenergy-induced emissions reduction amounts to about 11 mio tons of CO2-eq. and savings in fossil fuels of 2 mio tons of oil equivalent (TOE). The share of bioenergy in road transport remains unchanged. In Scenario I, an increase in land for producing liquid biofuels and woodfuel to 0.67 mio ha by 2030 is expected. Scenario I can accomplish long-term emission targets with available land and turns out to be the most effective scenario in terms of emission reduction per additional hectare of land.
    In Scenario II bioenergy-induced emissions reduction relative to the baseline amounts to about 20 mio tons of CO2-eq. and savings in fossil fuels of about 4.5 mio TOE (Scenario II with expansion: 22 mio tons of CO2-eq. and 5.4 mio TOE). The share of bioenergy in road transport grows to 24%. An increase in land for producing liquid biofuels and woodfuel to 1.1 mio ha by 2030 is expected in Scenario II (Scenario II with expansion: 1.3 mio ha). However, emissions reductions per additional hectare of land are about four to five times less compared to Scenario I.
    The roadmap shows that the most effective policy measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions would address power generation and CHP applications, which account for more than 50% in emission reductions. The bulk of these reductions in emissions come from avoiding methane release via landfill gas and biogas from animal waste through combustion in reciprocating engines, followed by CO2 emission reduction in biomass-based power generation, and policies on first generation biofuels (i.e. bioethanol, biodiesel and renewable diesel).

    Item Type:Article
    Date:21 December 2014
    Institution:Università degli Studi di Ferrara
    Divisions:Dipartimento > Ingegneria
    Subjects:Area 09 - Ingegneria industriale e dell'informazione > ING-IND/09 Sistemi per l'energia e l'ambiente
    Uncontrolled Keywords:Colombia, bioenergy, biomass, biofuel, power generation, CHP, scenario analysis, land use
    Deposited on:21 Dec 2014 20:52


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