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STRATEGIE DI SFRUTTAMENTO DELLE RISORSE LITICHE NELLA PRIMA PARTE DELL’EPIGRAVETTIANO RECENTE DELL’ITALIA NORD-ORIENTALE. ANALISI TECNO-TIPOLOGICA DI UN LIVELLO PROVENIENTE DALL’AREA INTERNA DEL SITO DI RIPARO TAGLIENTE: L’UNITA’ STRATIGRAFICA 13A ALFA.

Cremona, Maria Giovanna (2010) STRATEGIE DI SFRUTTAMENTO DELLE RISORSE LITICHE NELLA PRIMA PARTE DELL’EPIGRAVETTIANO RECENTE DELL’ITALIA NORD-ORIENTALE. ANALISI TECNO-TIPOLOGICA DI UN LIVELLO PROVENIENTE DALL’AREA INTERNA DEL SITO DI RIPARO TAGLIENTE: L’UNITA’ STRATIGRAFICA 13A ALFA. Tesi di Dottorato , Università degli Studi di Ferrara.

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    Abstract

    This research aims at contributing to reconstruction of lithic resources exploitation strategies and technical systems in the first part of the Late Epigravettian when the Southern slop of the Alps was progressively repopulated, at the end of the last glacial period. The methodology applied is based on a techno-economical, typological and spatial analysis of the lithic assemblage from Stratigraphic Unit 13a alfa in the site of Riparo Tagliente, Stallavena di Grezzana, Verona. S.U. 13a alfa (excavated between 1980 and 1990) was located in the inner area of the rock-shelter and extended over a surface of about 18 m². It is chronologically referred to the first part of the Late Glacial (Ancient Dryas) as it has been recently confirmed by a radiometric date (13.986 ± 60 years BP - LTL4441A - i.e. 17.100 – 16.300 years cal. BP). This layer is thus attributed to the “Epigravettiano recente” according to the cultural definition established by Broglio (1997). The lithic assemblage which was examined amounts to a total of 15.590 artefacts, of which 13780 débitage products and by-products, 1620 retouched pieces and 190 cores. The industry is obtained from local raw materials (Lessini area), with a dominance of the flints from the Biancone formation, which is the most abundant in the surrounding area, and lower percentages of other types (Scaglia Variegata, Calcari oolitici, Scaglia Rossa and Eocenic flints). The observation of natural surfaces suggests that provisioning took place preferably either in the debris deposits situated at the base of the flint veins within the Jurassic and Triassic layers or in the soils and karst pits which can be found at the top of the Lessini plateau; although abundant quantities of flint nodules were available in the riverbed of the Progno di Valpantena running in front of the site, these were used in much lower percentages. The technological analysis has allowed to recognise three main technical projects: blades (lenght > 60 mm), bladelets (length between 35 and 60 mm) and microbladelets, (length < a 35 mm). The bladelet project is the best represented one. The presence of a secondary project for the extraction of flakes (centripetal scheme) is also documented. The laminar/lamellar production is not standardised as far as width is concerned, and varies according to the different methods employed. Each category of product (blades, bladelets and microbladelets, respectively) was obtained through an independent reduction sequence; nonetheless some “mixed schemes” which testify the transition from blades to bladelets production and from bladelets to microbladelets have also been recognised. The three main sequences (blades, bladelets and microbladelets) identified were carried out by different methods of reduction: mainly frontal - both large and narrow - for blades (probably aimed at obtaining two different types of products: elongated blades and laminar blades); frontal - both large and narrow - with some cases of natural edges starting schemes passing to semi-tournant exploitations for both bladelets and micro-bladelets. The latter two result in a wide range of products with variable widths. Unidirectional exploitations are dominant (with either one flaking surface or – more rarely - two adjacent surfaces passing to semitournant exploitation schemes); bidirectional and orthogonal re-orientations, over the same or new surfaces, are rarer. All the range of primary products (blades, bladelets and microbladelets) were selected for the manufacturing of backed points, back bladelets, borers and truncated backed bladelets. Among backed points and back bladelets three different dimensional classes have been identified (large, medium and small), probably corresponding to different functional roles. Scrapers on blades, points and, secondarily, end-scrapers are obtained from laminar products especially from the largest ones; burins, endscrapers, scrapers and denticulates from maintenance and initialising by-products; short end-scrapers, scrapers, backed flakes and denticulates from flakes. 1620 retouched items have been identified (corresponding to 1662 primary types including double tools) by typological analysis (Laplace 1968). “Differentiated backed tools” are the most numerous (1037, 819 of which are fragments). End-scrapers (167) are slightly prevailing over burins (153) while the “substratum” (279) is dominated by denticulates. Among “differentiated backed tools”, borers are prevailing and they are followed by backed bladelets and backed points (although pointed fragmented elements are more numerous) and truncated backed bladelets (mostly characterised by piquant-trièdres). Some backed pieces with a cran are also present. It seems that some of the ratios between the different typological families/groups, i.e. the dominance of fragmented backed pieces, borers and endscrapers, are essentially connected to functional aspects whereas others could have a cultural significance, namely: a) the dominance of simple burins and long frontal endscrapers within each family, respectively; b) the low rates of truncated backed bladelets with respect to backed points and backed bladelets; c) the persistence of some backed pieces with a cran. At the present state of research, the typological and technological features delineated for S.U. 13a alfa are the most detailed available for the most ancient part of the recent Epigravettian in north-eastern Italy. In fact, the deposits of the lower part of the Epigravettian sequence of Riparo Tagliente, to which S.U. 13a alfa belongs, are the only one documented in the area for this period, representing the first traces of re-occupation of the southern slope of the Alps after deglaciation. Their description will thus enable to trace an outline of the evolution of lithic technical systems in the area between the ancient phase of the Epigravettian and the best known mid-final part of the recent phase. To conclude, the results obtained from the elaboration (with GIS systems) of spatial data of the different categories of lithic artefacts and the comparison with the distribution maps of the other remains (fauna, ochre and marine shells) allow to qualify S.U. 13a alfa as a polyfunctional area (where different activities were carried out: from blanks production to blanks transformation, from the manufacturing of complex tools and replacing of broken armatures to several subsistence activities) which was probably derived from a palimpsest of several occupation phases in the site.

    Tipologia del documento:Tesi di Dottorato (Tesi di Dottorato)
    Data:26 Marzo 2010
    Relatore:Guerreschi, Antonio - Fontana, Federica
    Coordinatore ciclo:Barbujani, Guido
    Istituzione:Università degli Studi di Ferrara
    Dottorato:XXII Anno 2007 > BIOLOGIA EVOLUZIONISTICA E AMBIENTALE
    Struttura:Dipartimento > Biologia ed evoluzione
    Soggetti:Area 10 - Scienze dell'antichita', filologico-letterarie e storico-artistiche > L-ANT/01 Preistoria e protostoria
    Parole chiave:epigravettiano, litica, tecnologia, tipologia, analisi spaziale, Epigravettian, lithic, technology, typology, spatial analysis
    Depositato il:26 Lug 2010 09:50

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